There are other ways to introduce business rules in the model than using state machines and guards. You can also use constraints. The model already has a lot of implicit constraints from the cardinalities of the association ends. Like if you have cardinality of 1..4 and you have zero objects in that relation – then you have broken constraint.

But you may also define you own constraints:


You can choose if a broken constraint (a constraint that evaluates to false) should be treated as Information, Warning or a Error to the user.

You can also define the constraint as being a delete constraint only:


This way have explained at the model level that the domain does not consider it to be ok to delete a Car-object as long as we have the deposit – unless it is in state Scrapped.

The delete constraints will be checked when is Deleted by MDriven – as a result of the Delete operator is executed on the class.

Other things that are checked when the Delete operator is run are the BusinessDeleteRules that exists on all association endpoints:


We as modelers should decide what the best rule is for each association end. In this case – is it ok to delete a Brand if there are Cars left in the AllCarsOfThisBrand association? No I think not. I am setting it to “MustBeEmpty”.

The association in the other direct on the other hand


I set that to “NeedNotBeEmptyNoWarning” – because deleting a car-object is ok even if it has a brand.

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